The planetary reducer is a transmission machine with compact structure, large transmission ratio and self-locking function under certain conditions. It is equipped with a helical gear reducer at the input end of the worm gear reducer. The multi-stage reducer can achieve very low output speed, higher efficiency than single-stage worm gear reducer, and low vibration, noise and energy. Low consumption. Among them, the hollow shaft type worm gear reducer not only has the above characteristics, but also has convenient installation and reasonable structure, and is more and more widely used.
First, common problems and their causes
1. The worm bearing is damaged. There are four main reasons for this situation. One is the unfairness of the material combination; the other is the poor quality of the surface of the meshing friction surface; the third is the inaccurate selection of the amount of lubricating oil added; the fourth is the poor assembly quality and the use environment. In the event of a fault, even if the gearbox is well sealed, it is often found that the gear oil in the reducer is emulsified and the bearing is rusted, corroded and damaged. In order to improve efficiency, planetary reducers generally use non-ferrous metals as worm gears, while worms use harder steel.
2. Drive small helical gear wear. If the wear speed is fast, it is necessary to consider whether the selection is accurate, whether it is overloaded, and the material, assembly quality or use environment of the worm gear. When the reducer is started, the gears are mechanically worn or even damaged due to the lack of effective lubrication. This is because the condensed water produced by the gear oil temperature rises and then cools after being mixed for a period of time. Because it is a sliding friction transmission, more heat is generated during operation, which causes a difference in thermal expansion between the various parts of the reducer and the seal, thereby forming a gap in each mating surface, and the lubricating oil is thinned due to an increase in temperature, which is liable to cause leakage. .
3. Worm gear wear. The worm gear is generally made of tin bronze. The paired worm material is hardened to 45°C to HRC4555, or 40Cr is hardened to HRC5055 and then ground by a worm grinder to a roughness of Ra0.8μm. It usually occurs on a vertical mounted reducer, mainly related to the amount of lubricant added and the type of oil.
4. Planetary reducer has a fever and oil leakage. When the vertical installation is installed, the amount of lubricating oil is easily insufficient. When the reducer is stopped, the transmission gear oil between the motor and the reducer is lost, and the gear is not protected by the lubrication. The reducer wears very slowly during normal operation, and some reducers can be used for more than 10 years.
Second, the solution
1. Establish a lubrication maintenance track system. The reducer can be maintained according to the “five-set” principle of lubrication work, so that each reducer has a responsible person to check on time, and found that the temperature rise is significant, over 40 ° C or oil temperature exceeds 80 ° C, the quality of the oil drops or oil When more copper powder is found and abnormal noise is generated, it should be stopped immediately, promptly inspected, trouble-shooted, and replaced.
2. Selection of lubricants and additives. The additive contains a seal regulator and a leak preventer to keep the seal soft and elastic, effectively reducing lubricant leakage. When installing vertically, the amount of lubricating oil added is much higher than that of horizontal installation, which may cause the reducer to have a fever and oil leakage.
3. Selection of the installation position of the reducer. You can purchase or make some special tools. When disassembling and installing the parts of the reducer, try to avoid hitting with other tools such as hammers. When replacing gears and worm gears, try to use original parts and replace them in pairs. When assembling the output shaft, pay attention to it. Tolerance fit; use a release agent or red dan oil to protect the hollow shaft to prevent wear and rust or to match the area scale, which is difficult to disassemble during maintenance. .
4. Guarantee the quality of the assembly. When refueling, pay attention to the amount of oil and ensure that the gear unit is accurately lubricated. In the case of positional approval, try not to use vertical installation. The worm gear reducer generally uses 220# gear oil. For heavy-duty gears with frequent load and frequent start-up and poor use environment, some lubricating oil additives can be used to make the gear oil still adhere to the gear surface during the rest of the planetary reducer. Protective film to prevent heavy load, low speed, high torque and direct contact between metals at start-up.
Article from Guangdong Saini Intelligent Equipment Technology Co.,Ltd.